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Environmental Engineering Research 2009;14(4): 212-219. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2009.14.4.212
Hazardous Air Pollutants Emission Characteristics from Cement Kilns Co-burning Wastes
Deepak Pudasainee1, Jeong-Hun Kim1, Sang-Hyeob Lee1, Sung-Jin Cho1, Geum-Ju Song2, and Yong-Chil Seo1
1Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei Institute of Environmental Science & Technology, Yonsei University Wonju Campus, Heungeop-myeon, Wonju-si, Gangwon-do 220-710, Korea
2Institute of Environmental and Energy Technology, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Hyoja-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 790-784, Korea
Corresponding Author: Yong-Chil Seo ,Tel: +82-33- 760-2438, Fax: +82-33-763-5224, Email: seoyc@yonsei.ac.kr
Received: March 8, 2009;  Accepted: November 9, 2009.
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ABSTRACT
Emission characteristics of air pollutants from three commercially operating cement kilns co-burning waste were investigated. The major heavy metals emitted were mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) Removal efficiency of the bag filter was above 98.5% for heavy metals (except Hg), and above 60% for Hg. Higher fractions of heavy metals entering the bag filter were speciated to cement kiln dust. On average, 3.3% of the -heavy metals of medium and low toxicity (Pb, Ni, and Cr) entering the bag filter were released into the atmosphere. Among highly toxic heavy metals, 0.14% of Cd, 0.01% of As, and 40% of Hg entering the bag filter were released into the atmosphere. In passing through the bag filter, the proportion of oxidized Hg in all cases increased. Emission variations of hazardous air pollutants in cement kilns tested were related to raw materials, fuel, waste feed and operating conditions. Volatile organic compounds detected in gas emissions were toluene, acrylonitrile benzene, styrene, 1,3-butadiene, and methylene chloride. Although hazardous air pollutants in emissions from cement kilns co-burning waste were within the existing emission limit, efforts are required to minimize their levels.
Keywords: Bag filter | Cement kiln dust | Hazardous air pollutants | Heavy metals | Waste co-burning | Volatile organic compounds
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