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Environmental Engineering Research 2019;24(2): 181-190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.127
Microbial population dynamics in constructed wetlands: Review of recent advancements for wastewater treatment
Rajitha J. Rajan1, J. S. Sudarsan2  , and S. Nithiyanantham3
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, SRMIST, Kanchipuram Dt., Kattankulathur – 603 203, Tamil Nadu, India
2National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), Balewadi, Pune, 411045, India
3Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, (Ultrasonic / NDT and Bio-Physics Divisions), Thiru.Vi.Kalyanasundaram Govt Arts & Science College, Thiruvarur, Tamilnadu 610003, India
Corresponding Author: Rajitha J. Rajan ,Tel: +91-9003078348, Email: rajithajrajan@gmail.com
J. S. Sudarsan ,Tel: +91-9003078348, Email: sudarsanjss@yahoo.com
Received: March 31, 2018;  Accepted: August 7, 2018.
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ABSTRACT
Constructed wetlands are improvised man-made systems, designed for adopting the principle of natural wetlands for purifying wastewater – the elixir of life. They are used widely as a cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for treating greywater generated from different tertiary treatment sources. It provides an elaborate platform for research activities in an attempt to recycle earth’s natural resources. Among the several organic impurities removal mechanisms existing in constructed wetland systems, the earth’s active microbial population plays a vital role. This review deals with the recent advancements in constructed wetland systems from a microbiological perspective to (effect/ devise/ formulate) chemical and physical treatment for water impurities. It focuses on microbial diversity studies in constructed wetlands, influence of wetland media on microbial diversity and wetland performance, role of specific microbes in water reuse, removal of trace elements, some heavy metals and antibiotics in constructed wetlands. The impurities removal processes in constructed wetlands is achieved by combined interactive systems such as selected plant species, nature of substrate used for microbial diversity and several biogeochemical effected reaction cycles in wetland systems. Therefore, the correlation studies that have been conducted by earlier researchers in microbial diversity in wetlands are addressed herewith.
Keywords: Constructed wetlands | Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) | Phytoremediation | Polymerase chain reaction
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