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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.130
Risk assessment of heavy metals in soil based on geographic information system-Kriging technique in Anka, Nigeria
Onisoya Johnbull, Bassim Abbassi, and Richard G Zytner
School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph N1G 2W1, Canada
Corresponding Author: Bassim Abbassi ,
Received: March 31, 2018;  Accepted: July 21, 2018.
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ABSTRACT
Soil contaminated with heavy metals from artisanal gold mining in Anka Local Government Area in Northwestern Nigeria was investigated to evaluate the human health risk as a result of heavy metals. Measured concentration of heavy metals and exposure parameters were used to estimate human carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk. geographic information system (GIS)-based Kriging method was utilized to create a prediction maps of human health risks and probability maps of heavy metals concentrations exceeding their threshold limits. Hazard index calculation showed that 21 out of 23 locations are posing non-cancer risk for children. Adults and children are at high cancer risk in all locations as the total cancer risk exceeded 1×10-6 (the lower limit CTR value). Kriging model showed that only a very small area in Anka has a hazard index of less than unity and cumulative target risk of less than 1×10-4, indicating a significant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for children. The probability of heavy metals to exceed their threshold concentrations around the study area was also found to be high.
Keywords: Carcinogenic | Heavy metals | Human risk assessment | Kriging | Non-carcinogenic
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