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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.054
Electrochemical dehalogenation of disinfection by-products and iodine-containing contrast media: A review
Gregory Korshin1, and Mingquan Yan2
1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Box 352700, Seattle, WA 98195-2700, USA
2Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, the Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871, China
Corresponding Author: Gregory Korshin ,Tel: +1-206-543-2394 , Email: korshin@uw.edu
Received: January 30, 2018;  Accepted: March 20, 2018.
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This paper summarizes results of research on the electrochemical (EC) degradation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) and iodine-containing contrast media (ICMs), with the focus on EC reductive dehalogenation. The efficiency of EC dehalogenation of DBPs increases with the number of halogen atoms in an individual DBP species. EC reductive cleavage of bromine from parent DBPs is faster than that of chlorine. EC data and quantum chemical modeling indicate that the EC reduction of iodine-containing DBPs (I-DBPs) is characterized by the formation of active iodine that reacts with the organic substrate. The occurrence of ICMs has attracted attention due to their association with the generation of I-DBPs. Indirect EC oxidation of ICMs using anodes that produce reactive oxygen species can result in a complete degradation of these compounds yet I-DBPs are formed in the process. Reductive EC deiodination of ICMs is rapid and its overall rate is diffusion-controlled yet I-DBPs are also produced in this reaction. Further progress in practically feasible EC methods to remove DBPs, ICMs and other trace-level organic contaminants requires the development of novel electrocatalytic materials, elimination of mass transfer limitations via innovative design of 3D electrodes and EC reactors, and further progress in the understanding of intrinsic mechanisms of EC reactions of DBPs and TrOC at EC interfaces.
Keywords: Disinfection by-products | Electrochemistry | Iodine-containing media | Reductive dehalogenation | Trace organic contaminants | Water treatment
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