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Environmental Engineering Research 2018;23(2): 175-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2017.145
Optimization of operating parameters to remove and recover crude oil from contaminated soil using subcritical water extraction process
Golam Taki, Mohammad Nazrul Islam, Seong-Jae Park, and Jeong-Hun Park 
Department of Environment & Energy Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Jeong-Hun Park ,Tel: +82-62-530-1855 , Fax: +82-62-530-1859, Email: parkjeo1@jnu.ac.kr
Received: October 13, 2017;  Accepted: January 9, 2018.
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Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was implemented to optimization the operating parameters and assess the removal and recovery efficiencies of crude oil from contaminated soil using subcritical water extraction. The effects of temperature, extraction time and water flow rate were explored, and the results indicate that temperature has a great impact on crude oil removal and recovery. The correlation coefficients for oil removal (R2 = 0.74) and recovery (R2 = 0.98) suggest that the proposed quadratic model is useful. When setting the target removal and recovery (>99%), BBD-RSM determined the optimum condition to be a temperature of 250°C, extraction time of 120 min, and water flow rate of 1 mL/min. An experiment was carried out to confirm the results, with removal and recovery efficiencies of 99.69% and 87.33%, respectively. This result indicates that BBD is a suitable method to optimize the process variables for crude oil removal and recovery from contaminated soil.
Keywords: Box-Behnken Design | Crude oil | Recovery | Removal | Subcritical water
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