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Environmental Engineering Research 2011;16(3): 137-148. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2011.16.3.137
Ultrasonic Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Seawater and Brackish Water
Soyoung Park1, Jong-Sung Park2, Hayoon Lee2, Jiyong Heo3, Yeomin Yoon3, Kyungho Choi1, and Namguk Her2
1School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, Korea
2Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, Young-Cheon 770-849, Korea
3Department of Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
Corresponding Author: Namguk Her ,Tel: +82-54-330-4760, Fax: +82-54-335-5790, Email: namgukher@daum.net
Received: May 23, 2011;  Accepted: July 14, 2011.
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ABSTRACT
In this study, a series of experiments was conducted on the relative degradation of commonly known endocrine-disrupting compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in a single-component aqueous solution using 28 and 580 kHz ultrasonic reactors. The experiments were conducted with three different types of model water: deionized water (DI), synthetic brackish water (SBW), and synthetic seawater (SSW) at pH 4, 7.5, and 11 in the presence of inert glass beads and humic acids. Significantly higher sonochemical degradation (93–97% for BPA) occurred at 580 kHz than at 28 kHz (43–61% for BPA), regardless of water type. A slightly higher degradation was observed for EE2 compared to that of BPA. The degradation rate of BPA and EE2 in DI water, SBW, and SSW after 30 min of ultrasound irradiation at 580 kHz increased slightly with the increase in pH from 4 (0.073–0.091 min-1 for BPA and 0.081–0.094 min-1 for EE2) to 7.5 (0.087–0.114 min-1 for BPA and 0.092–0.124 min-1 for EE2). In contrast, significant degradation was observed at pH 11 (0.149–0.221 min-1 for BPA and 0.147–0.228 min-1 for EE2). For the given frequencies of 28 and 580 kHz, the degradation rate increased in the presence of glass beads (0.1 mm and 25 g) for both BPA and EE2: 0.018–0.107 min-1 without beads and 0.052–0.142 min-1 with beads for BPA; 0.021–0.111 min-1 without beads and 0.054–0.136 min-1 with beads for EE2. A slight increase in degradation of both BPA and EE2 was found as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, humic acids) increased in both SBW and SSW: 0.107–0.115 min-1 in SBW and 0.087–0.101 min-1 in SSW for BPA; 0.111–0.111 min-1 in SWB and 0.092–0.105 min-1 in SSW for EE2. After 30 min of sonicating the humic acid solution, DOC removal varied depending on the water type: 27% (3 mg L-1) and 7% (10 mg L-1) in SBW and 7% (3 mg L-1) and 4% (10 mg L-1) in SSW.
Keywords: Bisphenol A | Brackish water | Endocrine disrupting compounds | Seawater | Sonochemical degradation | 17α-ethinyl estradiol
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