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Environmental Engineering Research 2003;8(2): 49-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2003.8.2.049
ENHANCED NITRIFICATION BY IMMOBILIZED CLINOPTILOLITE IN AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE
Chang Gyun Kim1, Hyung Sool Lee2, and Tai II Yoon1
1Division of Environmental & Geosystem Engineering, Inha University, Inchon 402-751, Korea
2Regional Research Center for Coastal Environments of Yellow Sea, Inha University, Inchon 402-751, Korea
Corresponding Author: Chang Gyun Kim ,Tel: +82-32-860-7561, Fax: +82-32-865-1425, Email: cgk@inha.ac.kr
Received: July 13, 2002;  Accepted: January 12, 2003.
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ABSTRACT
Clinoptilolite amended activated sludge (CAAS) was developed to improve nitrification in treating municipal wastewater. Its performance was compared to that of a conventional activated sludge (AS) as a control. In addition, the sludge characteristics were comparatively observed with regard to floe size distribution, settlability and dewaterability. CAAS showed that nitrification was achieved as high as 90% for 0.28 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)/m'-day at 10 days of solid retention time (SRT). In comparison, nitrification from the AS was accomplished at approximately 20%. For 20 day SRT, there was no significant differences in the degree of nitrification between the two processes. However, a significant sludge bulking was observed from the control, which in turn attributed to deteriorating its sludge characteristics such as initial settling velocity (ISV). sludge volume index (SVI) and specific resistance. Increasing the TKN load to 0.42 kg/m'-day for 20 day of SRT, the nitrification efficiency of the control was declined as low as 53%. Conversely, the nitrification from the CAAS was unvaryingly achieved at the highest of 90% without any occurrence of filamentous bacteria. Floe size observed from the CAAS was greater by a factor of four than that of the AS. For 10 day of SRT, ISV was 11 m/hr for the CAAS and 5 m/hr for the AS. For 20 day of SRT, it was not varied from the CAAS, but it was considerably declined for the AS showing 0.7 m/hr. Specific resistance of sludge taken from the CAAS was observed at 2.2 x 10s m/kg, that was lower by four order of magnitude than that of the AS. It was thus concluded that, without significant modification, simply amending clinoptilolite into an existing activated sludge could successfully enhance the performances of its nitrification with sludge property being ameliorated.
Keywords: activated sludge | clinoptilolite | nitrification | sludge property
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