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Environmental Engineering Research 2006;11(5): 241-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2006.11.5.241
Kun Sang Lee
Department of Environmental Engineering Kyonggi University, Suwon, Kyonggi 443-760, S. Korea
Corresponding Author: Kun Sang Lee ,Tel: +82-31-249-9738, Fax: +82-31-244-6300, Email: kslee@kyonggi.ac.kr
Received: April 8, 2006;  Accepted: July 11, 2006.
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A mathematical model is described for the prediction of convective upward transport of an organic solvent driven by evaporation at the surface, which is known as the major transport mechanism in the in-situ photolysis of a soil contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD). A finite-element model was proposed to incorporate the effects of multiphase flow on the distribution of each fluid, gravity as a driving force, and the use of hysteretic models for more accurate description of k-S-p relations. Extensive numerical calculations were performed to study fluid flow through three types of soils under different water table conditions. Predictions of relative permeability-saturation-pressure (k-S-p) relations and fluids distribution for an illustrative soil indicate that hysteresis effects may be quite substantial. This result emphasizes the need to use hysteretic models in performing flow simulations including reversals of flow paths. Results of additional calculations accounting for hysteresis on the one-dimensional unsaturated soil columns show that gravity affects significantly on the flow of each fluid during gravity drainage, solvent injection, and evaporation, especially for highly permeable soils. The rate and duration of solvent injection also have a profound influence on the fluid saturation profile and the amount of evaporated solvent. Key factors influencing water drainage and solvent evaporation in soils also include hydraulic conductivity and water table configuration.
Keywords: 2 | 3 | 7 | 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) | Multiphase flow | Hysteresis | Mathematical model
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