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Environmental Engineering Research 2007;12(4): 176-193. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2007.12.4.176
REVIEW OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT MASS FLUX MEASUREMENT
Mark N. Goltz1, Sehjong Kim2, Hyouk Yoon3, and Junboum Park2
1Department of Systems and Engineering Management Air Force Institute of Technology 2950 Hobson Way, Bldg. 640 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7765
2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Seoul National University San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Gwanak-gu Seoul, 151-742, Korea
3Defense Management College National Defense University 205 Susaek-dong, Eunpyung-gu Seoul, 122-875, Korea
Corresponding Author: Mark N. Goltz ,Tel: 937-470-5632, Fax: 650-725-9720, Email: mgoltz1951@gmail.com
Received: August 9, 2007;  Accepted: September 8, 2007.
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ABSTRACT
The ability to measure groundwater contaminant flux is increasingly being recognized as crucial in order to prioritize contaminated site cleanups, estimate the efficiency of remediation technologies, measure rates of natural attenuation, and apply proper source terms to model groundwater contaminant transport. Recently, a number of methods have been developed and subsequently applied to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater in the field. Flux measurement methods can be categorized as either point methods or integral methods. As the name suggests, point methods measure flux at a specific point or points in the subsurface. To increase confidence in the accuracy of the measurement, it is necessary to increase the number of points (and therefore, the cost) of the sampling network. Integral methods avoid this disadvantage by using pumping wells to interrogate large volumes of the subsurface. Unfortunately, integral methods are expensive because they require that large volumes of contaminated water be extracted and managed. Recent work has investigated the development of an integral method that does not require extraction of contaminated water from the subsurface. We begin with a review of the significance and importance of measuring groundwater contaminant mass flux. We then review groundwater contaminant flux measurement methods that are either currently in use or under development. Finally, we conclude with a qualitative comparison of the various flux measurement methods.
Keywords: groundwater contamination | hazardous waste site characterization | hazardous waste site remediation | mass flux | flux measurement | passive flux meter | natural attenuation | remediation technology | integral pump test | recirculating wells
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