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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2020.380
Exposure assessment of elemental carbon, ultrafine particles, and crystalline silica at highway toll booths
Jungah Shin1, Boowook Kim1, Jeonghoon Lee2, Joon Sig Jung3, Yong Chul Shin4, and Kyeongmin Lee5
1Institute of Occupation and Environment, Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Service, Incheon 21417, Republic of Korea
2School of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan 1600, Republic of Korea
3Nakdong River Basin Environmental Office, Changwon 250-5, Republic of Korea
4Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae 50834, Republic of Korea
5Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd, Suwon 150, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Boowook Kim ,Tel: +82-032-540-4968, Fax: +82-032-540-4997, Email: labor7@gmail.com
Received: July 3, 2020;  Accepted: October 9, 2020.
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ABSTRACT
Highway toll booth workers have been reported to be at an increased risk of occupational lung cancer. Moreover, insufficient studies have been performed on exposure assessment of workers at highway toll booths. Elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and respirable crystalline silica (RCS) concentrations were measured at highway toll booths in Gyeongsangbuk-do (Republic of Korea). The particle number (PN) concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particle were measured using three SMPS devices. The average concentration of the EC inside the booth was 3.3 μg/m3, with the maximum being 5.8 μg/m3. The concentrations of EC were highest for booths that operated exclusively for trucks. The average PN concentration inside the booth was 3.54 × 104 cm-3, approximately 5-fold higher than the reference indoor background. The average BC concentration in the booths were approximately 8 μg/m3, and the instantaneous peak concentration was 271 μg/m3. The RCS was below the detection limit in all samples. This study revealed that toll workers were most frequently exposed to diesel engine particle less than 100 nm, with an extremely high respiratory deposition rate. Therefore, a respiratory protection program is necessary to safeguard these workers against vehicle-related pollutants.
Keywords: Crystalline silica | Diesel engine particle | Elemental carbon | Particle number concentration | Particle size distribution | Toll station workers
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