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Environmental Engineering Research 2020;25(3): 356-365. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2019.101
Application of aqueous carbonated slags in the immobilization of heavy metals in field-contaminated soils
Jiyeon Choi, and Won Sik Shin 
School of Architecture, Civil, Environmental and Energy Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Won Sik Shin ,Tel: +82-53-950-7584, Fax: +82-53-950-6579, Email: wshin@knu.ac.kr
Received: March 13, 2019;  Accepted: May 16, 2019.
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ABSTRACT
The aqueous carbonation efficiencies of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and ladle slags at various pressures, temperatures, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios were investigated to determine optimum conditions. The maximum CO2 carbonated concentrations in slag (0.584 mmol/g for BOF slag and 1.038 mmol/g for ladle slag) was obtained at 10 bars, 40°C, and L/S = 5 mL/g-dry. The L/S ratio was the most critical parameter for carbonation. The effect of carbonated slag amendment on the immobilization of heavy metals in two field-contaminated soils was also investigated. The immobilization efficiencies evaluated by using the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T) were above 90% for both raw and carbonated slags for all soils. The TCLP-extractable heavy metals concentrations were below the criteria (5.0, 1.0 and 5.0 g/L for Pb, Cd, and Cr, respectively) after immobilizations with both slags except for Pb in soil B. The SM&T analysis showed the decrease in the exchangeable phase but the increase in residual phase after immobilization with raw and carbonated slags. The results of this study imply the promising potential of the carbonated slags on the immobilization of heavy metals in the field-contaminated soils.
Keywords: Aqueous carbonation | Contaminated soils | Heavy metals | Immobilization | Slag
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