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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.402
Pillared clays from natural resources as catalysts for catalytic wet peroxide oxidation: Characterization and kinetic insights
Marzhan Seitovna Kalmakhanova1, Jose Luis Diaz de Tuesta2,3, Bakytgul Kabykenovna Massalimova1, and Helder Teixeira Gomes2,3
1Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, M.Kh. Dulati Taraz State University, Taraz, Kazakhstan
2Mountain Research Center CIMO, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
3Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering – Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP), Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
Corresponding Author: Jose Luis Diaz de Tuesta ,Tel: +351-273-303-110, Fax: +351-273-313-051, Email: jl.diazdetuesta@ipb.pt, htgomes@ipb.pt
Helder Teixeira Gomes ,Tel: +351-273-303-110, Fax: +351-273-313-051, Email: jl.diazdetuesta@ipb.pt, htgomes@ipb.pt
Received: November 14, 2018;  Accepted: March 3, 2019.
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ABSTRACT
Pillared clays with Zr and Fe/Cu/Zr polycations have been prepared from natural clays found in large deposits of Kazakhstan and assessed as catalysts for the catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO), using 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) as model compound. The performance of the catalysts was followed by measuring the concentration of 4-NP, H2O2 and the total organic carbon (TOC), considering C4-NP = 5 g L-1, CH2O2 = 17.8 g L-1, Ccat = 2.5 g L-1, initial pH = 3.0 and T = 50°C. At those selected conditions, the pillared clays showed higher activity than natural clays in the CWPO of 4-NP. The conversion of the model pollutant was complete when Fe/Cu/Zr-PILCs were used, with the TOC removal reaching 78.4% after 24 h with the best Fe/Cu/Zr-PILC. The H2O2, 4-NP and TOC time-evolution was well described by a kinetic model based on TOC lumps in three blocks, considering the initial TOC (corresponding to 4-NP), the production of oxidizable intermediates and the formation of refractory products.
Keywords: Advanced oxidation process | Clay-based catalyst | CWPO | Kinetic modeling | Wastewater treatment | 4-nitrophenol
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