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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.383
Lithium ion car batteries: Present analysis and future predictions
James Arambarri1, James Hayden1, Mostafa Elkurdy1, Bryan Meyers1, Ziad Salem Abu Hamatteh2, Bassim Abbassi1, and Waid Omar2
1School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada
2Faculty of Engineering Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Amman (11134), Jordan
Corresponding Author: Ziad Salem Abu Hamatteh ,Tel: +962-777- 484-772, +962-799-059-03, Fax: +962-6-4790350, Email: hamatteh@bau.edu.jo; drabuhamatteh@yahoo.com
Received: November 1, 2018;  Accepted: January 16, 2019.
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ABSTRACT
Electric vehicles are spreading rapidly and many counties are promoting hybrid and fully electric vehicles through legislation. Therefore, an increasing amount of lithium ion batteries will reach the end of their usable life and will require effective and sustainable end-of-life management plan which include landfill disposal or incineration. The current research focuses on more sustainable methods such as remanufacturing, reuse and recycling in order to prepare for future battery compositions and provide insights to the need recycling methods to be developed to handle large amounts of batteries sustainably in the near future. The two most prominent material recovery techniques are hydro-metallurgic and pyrometallurgy which are explored and assessed on their relative effectiveness, sustainability, and feasibility. Hydrometallurgy is a superior recycling method due to high material recovery and purity, very low emissions, high prevalence of chemical reuse and implementation of environmentally sustainable compounds. Expanding recycling technologies globally should take the research and technologies pioneered by Umicore to establish a sustainable recycling program for end-of-life electric vehicles batteries. Emerging battery technology of Telsa show the most effective designs for high performance batteries includes the use of silicon which is expected to increase capacity of batteries in the future.
Keywords: EV batteries | Hydro-metallurgic and pyrometallurgy | Life cycle analysis | Performance | Recycling | Sustainability
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