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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4491/eer.2018.347
Stabilization of fluorine in soil using calcium hydroxide and its potential human health risk
Seulki Jeong, Doyoung Doyoung, and Hye-On Yoon
Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 6-7, Inchon-ro 22-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02855, Republic of Korea
Corresponding Author: Hye-On Yoon ,Tel: 82-2-6943-4192 , Fax: 82-2-6943-4149, Email: dunee@kbsi.re.kr
Received: September 30, 2018;  Accepted: January 3, 2019.
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ABSTRACT
This study assessed the stabilization of fluorine (F)-contaminated soil using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and the consequent changes in human health risk. The bioavailable F decreased to 3.5%, (i.e., 57.9 ± 1.27 mg/kg in 6% Ca(OH)2-treated soil sample) from 43.0%, (i.e., 711 ± 23.4 mg/kg in control soil sample). This resulted from the conversion of water-soluble F to stable calcium fluoride (CaF2), which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction spec-trometry. Soil ingestion, inhalation of fugitive dust from soil, and water ingestion were selected as exposure path-ways for human health risk assessment. Non-carcinogenic risks of F in soils reduced to less than 1.0 after stabilization, ranging from 4.2 to 0.34 for child and from 3.0 to 0.25 for adult. Contaminated water ingestion owing to the leaching of F from soil to groundwater was considered as a major exposure pathway. The risks through soil ingestion and inhalation of fugitive dust from soil were insignificant both before and after stabilization, although F concentration exceeded the Korean soil regulatory level before stabilization. Our data suggested that substantial risk to human health owing to various potential exposure pathways could be addressed by managing F present in soil.
Keywords: Calcium hydroxide | Fluorine | Human health risk assessment | Soil | Stabilization
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